arsd.script

A small script interpreter that builds on arsd.jsvar to be easily embedded inside and to have has easy two-way interop with the host D program. The script language it implements is based on a hybrid of D and Javascript. The type the language uses is based directly on var from arsd.jsvar.

The interpreter is slightly buggy and poorly documented, but the basic functionality works well and much of your existing knowledge from Javascript will carry over, making it hopefully easy to use right out of the box. See the #examples to quickly get the feel of the script language as well as the interop.

Members

Classes

ScriptCompileException
class ScriptCompileException

Thrown on script syntax errors and the sort.

ScriptException
class ScriptException

This represents an exception thrown by throw x; inside the script as it is interpreted.

ScriptRuntimeException
class ScriptRuntimeException

Thrown on things like interpretation failures.

Functions

interpret
var interpret(string code, var variables = null, string scriptFilename = null)

This is likely your main entry point to the interpreter. It will interpret the script code given, with the given global variable object (which will be modified by the script, meaning you can pass it to subsequent calls to interpret to store context), and return the result of the last expression given.

interpretFile
var interpretFile(File file, var globals)
repl
void repl(var globals)

Detailed Description

Installation instructions

This script interpreter is contained entirely in two files: jsvar.d and script.d. Download both of them and add them to your project. Then, import arsd.script;, declare and populate a var globals = var.emptyObject;, and interpret("some code", globals); in D.

There's nothing else to it, no complicated build, no external dependencies.

$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/adamdruppe/arsd/master/script.d
$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/adamdruppe/arsd/master/jsvar.d

$ dmd yourfile.d script.d jsvar.d

Script features

OVERVIEW

  • easy interop with D thanks to arsd.jsvar. When interpreting, pass a var object to use as globals. This object also contains the global state when interpretation is done.
  • mostly familiar syntax, hybrid of D and Javascript
  • simple implementation is moderately small and fairly easy to hack on (though it gets messier by the day), but it isn't made for speed.

SPECIFICS

  • Allows identifiers-with-dashes. To do subtraction, put spaces around the minus sign.
  • Allows identifiers starting with a dollar sign.
  • string literals come in "foo" or 'foo', like Javascript, or raw string like D. Also come as “nested “double quotes” are an option!”
  • double quoted string literals can do Ruby-style interpolation: "Hello, #{name}".
  • mixin aka eval (does it at runtime, so more like eval than mixin, but I want it to look like D)
  • scope guards, like in D
  • Built-in assert() which prints its source and its arguments
  • try/catch/finally/throw You can use try as an expression without any following catch to return the exception:

    var a = try throw "exception";; // the double ; is because one closes the try, the second closes the var // a is now the thrown exception

  • for/while/foreach
  • D style operators: +-/* on all numeric types, ~ on strings and arrays, |&^ on integers. Operators can coerce types as needed: 10 ~ "hey" == "10hey". 10 + "3" == 13. Any math, except bitwise math, with a floating point component returns a floating point component, but pure int math is done as ints (unlike Javascript btw). Any bitwise math coerces to int.

    So you can do some type coercion like this:

    a = a|0; // forces to int a = "" ~ a; // forces to string a = a+0.0; // coerces to float

    Though casting is probably better.

  • Type coercion via cast, similarly to D. var a = "12"; a.typeof == "String"; a = cast(int) a; a.typeof == "Integral"; a == 12;

    Supported types for casting to: int/long (both actually an alias for long, because of how var works), float/double/real, string, char/dchar (these return *integral* types), and arrays, int[], string[], and float[].

    This forwards directly to the D function var.opCast.

  • some operator overloading on objects, passing opBinary(op, rhs), length, and perhaps others through like they would be in D. opIndex(name) opIndexAssign(value, name) // same order as D, might some day support [n1, n2] => (value, n1, n2)

    obj.__prop("name", value); // bypasses operator overloading, useful for use inside the opIndexAssign especially

    Note: if opIndex is not overloaded, getting a non-existent member will actually add it to the member. This might be a bug but is needed right now in the D impl for nice chaining. Or is it? FIXME

  • if/else
  • array slicing, but note that slices are rvalues currently
  • variables must start with A-Z, a-z, _, or $, then must be [A-Za-z0-9_]*. (The $ can also stand alone, and this is a special thing when slicing, so you probably shouldn't use it at all.). Variable names that start with __ are reserved and you shouldn't use them.
  • int, float, string, array, bool, and json!q{} literals
  • var.prototype, var.typeof. prototype works more like Mozilla's __proto__ than standard javascript prototype.
  • classes: // inheritance works class Foo : bar { // constructors, D style this(var a) { ctor.... }

    // static vars go on the auto created prototype static var b = 10;

    // instance vars go on this instance itself var instancevar = 20;

    // "virtual" functions can be overridden kinda like you expect in D, though there is no override keyword function virt() { b = 30; // lexical scoping is supported for static variables and functions

    // but be sure to use this. as a prefix for any class defined instance variables in here this.instancevar = 10; } }

    var foo = new Foo(12);

    foo.newFunc = function() { this.derived = 0; }; // this is ok too, and scoping, including 'this', works like in Javascript

    You can also use 'new' on another object to get a copy of it.

  • return, break, continue, but currently cannot do labeled breaks and continues
  • __FILE__, __LINE__, but currently not as default arguments for D behavior (they always evaluate at the definition point)
  • most everything are expressions, though note this is pretty buggy! But as a consequence: for(var a = 0, b = 0; a < 10; a+=1, b+=1) {} won't work but this will: for(var a = 0, b = 0; a < 10; {a+=1; b+=1}) {}

    You can encase things in {} anywhere instead of a comma operator, and it works kinda similarly.

    {} creates a new scope inside it and returns the last value evaluated.

  • functions: var fn = function(args...) expr; or function fn(args....) expr;

    Special function local variables: _arguments = var[] of the arguments passed _thisfunc = reference to the function itself this = reference to the object on which it is being called - note this is like Javascript, not D.

    args can say var if you want, but don't have to default arguments supported in any position when calling, you can use the default keyword to use the default value in any position

  • macros: A macro is defined just like a function, except with the macro keyword instead of the function keyword. The difference is a macro must interpret its own arguments - it is passed AST objects instead of values. Still a WIP.

FIXME: * make sure superclass ctors are called

FIXME: prettier stack trace when sent to D

FIXME: interpolated string: "$foo" or "#{expr}" or something. FIXME: support more escape things in strings like \n, \t etc.

FIXME: add easy to use premade packages for the global object.

FIXME: maybe simplify the json!q{ } thing a bit.

FIXME: the debugger statement from javascript might be cool to throw in too.

FIXME: add continuations or something too

FIXME: Also ability to get source code for function something so you can mixin. FIXME: add COM support on Windows

Might be nice: varargs lambdas - maybe without function keyword and the x => foo syntax from D.

Examples

This example shows the basics of how to interact with the script. The string enclosed in q{ .. } is the script language source.

The var type comes from arsd.jsvar and provides a dynamic type to D. It is the same type used in the script language and is weakly typed, providing operator overloads to work with many D types seamlessly.

However, if you do need to convert it to a static type, such as if passing to a function, you can use get!T to get a static type out of it.

1 var globals = var.emptyObject;
2 globals.x = 25; // we can set variables on the global object
3 globals.name = "script.d"; // of various types
4 // and we can make native functions available to the script
5 globals.sum = (int a, int b) {
6 	return a + b;
7 };
8 
9 // This is the source code of the script. It is similar
10 // to javascript with pieces borrowed from D, so should
11 // be pretty familiar.
12 string scriptSource = q{
13 	function foo() {
14 		return 13;
15 	}
16 
17 	var a = foo() + 12;
18 	assert(a == 25);
19 
20 	// you can also access the D globals from the script
21 	assert(x == 25);
22 	assert(name == "script.d");
23 
24 	// as well as call D functions set via globals:
25 	assert(sum(5, 6) == 11);
26 
27 	// I will also set a function to call from D
28 	function bar(str) {
29 		// unlike Javascript though, we use the D style
30 		// concatenation operator.
31 		return str ~ " concatenation";
32 	}
33 };
34 
35 // once you have the globals set up, you call the interpreter
36 // with one simple function.
37 interpret(scriptSource, globals);
38 
39 // finally, globals defined from the script are accessible here too:
40 // however, notice the two sets of parenthesis: the first is because
41 // @property is broken in D. The second set calls the function and you
42 // can pass values to it.
43 assert(globals.foo()() == 13);
44 
45 assert(globals.bar()("test") == "test concatenation");
46 
47 // this shows how to convert the var back to a D static type.
48 int x = globals.x.get!int;

Macros

Macros are like functions, but instead of evaluating their arguments at the call site and passing value, the AST nodes are passed right in. Calling the node evaluates the argument and yields the result (this is similar to to lazy parameters in D), and they also have methods like toSourceCode, type, and interpolate, which forwards to the given string.

The language also supports macros and custom interpolation functions. This example shows an interpolation string being passed to a macro and used with a custom interpolation string.

You might use this to encode interpolated things or something like that.

1 var globals = var.emptyObject;
2 interpret(q{
3 	macro test(x) {
4 		return x.interpolate(function(str) {
5 			return str ~ "test";
6 		});
7 	}
8 
9 	var a = "cool";
10 	assert(test("hey #{a}") == "hey cooltest");
11 }, globals;)
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